Police often provoke protest violence, UC researchers find
Violent protests can often be unintentionally provoked by aggressive law enforcement tactics like approaching demonstrators in riot gear or the use of military-style formations, according to a team of researchers at UC Berkeley.
"Everything starts to turn bad when you see a police officer come out of an SUV and he’s carrying an AR-15," said Nick Adams, a sociologist and fellow at UC Berkeley’s Institute for Data Science who leads the Deciding Force Project. "It just upsets the crowd."
The researchers found that some law enforcement agencies are taking less provocative measures to calm the crowd.
During the Occupy protests, for example, police in some cities deployed officers in small clusters rather than in skirmish lines. Such cities tended to see fewer clashes between demonstrators and police, the researchers said.
"When it’s two or three officers, protesters don’t get intimidated," Adams said. "They may even talk with the police."
Hiccups are usually harmless, but quite annoying. They occur when the vagus nerve, which runs from the brain to the abdomen, is irritated through digestive disturbances. George Triadafilopoulos, M.D., a gastroenterologist and associate professor of medicine at the University of California, Davis, explains that the home remedies used to stop a hiccup work on two main principles: over stimulating the vagus nerve, and interfering with breathing.
Sweeten The Hiccups
Mary Poppins sang that a spoonful of sugar helps the medicine go down. But does it help hiccups? Many experts think so. ‘’The nerve endings in the mouth become overloaded with the sweet sensation,’’ Triadafilopoulos explains. Have a teaspoonful of sugar, and if you can, place the sugar on the back of the tongue, where ‘’sour’’ is tasted. This way, the sugar will pack the most punch.
Bag Those Hiccups
Breathing into a paper bag is believed to work on the same principle as breath-holding. They increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream, and the body becomes preoccupied with getting rid of it.
Eat More Slowly
‘’People who eat too fast tend not chew well, which can cause hiccups,’’ says Triadafilopoulos. And besides that, you swallow more than the meal. ‘’Air gets entrapped between pieces of food,’’ he explains. Chew deliberately and take smaller sips of drinks.